Document Type: Review Article


Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt



Recent investigation presents exciting, simple and manual procedures to separate and detect different salt radicals of both cations and anions qualitatively and quantitatively. Salt defined as a chemical compound which produce from the reaction of acid with base. So, Acid definition, it is a chemical compound that contains reactable hydrogen (meaning that any positive ion or metal can replace all or part of it) reacts with oxides or hydroxides and gives salt and water. Furthermore, the base is defined as a substance that reacts with acids to produce salt and water only. Basic radicals (Cations) is often a metal, which is the part of the salt shared by the base or alkali in its formation. Basic radicals carry positive charges when ionized and separated from the original salt in water and are called cations and are attracted to the cathode. Acid radicals (Anions) is the part of the salt that is already in the acid from which it is derived or is the part of the salt that the acid shares. Acid radical carries negative charges when ionized and separated from the original salt in water and are called anions and are attracted to the anode. Descriptive analysis is complete when it verifies the presence of basic and acidic radicals in the material to be examined, and often suffices without specifying the truth of the salts formed.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects




[1] E.R. Adlard. (2019), Springer.

[2] W.L. Arneson and J.M. Brickell, Clinical Chemistry: a laboratory perspective. (2007): FA Davis.

[3] J. Barber and C. Rostron, Pharmaceutical chemistry. (2013): Oxford University Press.

[4] M.L. Bishop, E.P. Fody and L.E. Schoeff, Clinical chemistry: principles, techniques, and correlations. (2013): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

[5] T. Brown, H. LeMay and R. Wilson. (1988), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[6] R.R. Crichton and R.O. Louro, Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry. (2019): Elsevier.

[7] J. Crowe and T. Bradshaw, Chemistry for the biosciences: the essential concepts. (2014): Oxford University Press.

[8] D.Q. Dorr, K.J. Denniston and J.J. Topping, General, organic, and biochemistry. (2017): McGraw-Hill.

[9] S. Erduran and E. Kaya, Transforming Teacher Education Through the Epistemic Core of Chemistry. (2019): Springer.

[10] F. Edition, F. Fifield and D. Kealey, Principles and Practice of Analytical Chemistry.

[11] W.M. Haynes, CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. (2014): CRC press.

[12] D.S. Jacobs, B.L. Kasten, W.R. Demott and W. Wolfson, Laboratory test handbook. (1996): Lexi-Comp Incorporated.

[13] J. Lahann, Click chemistry for biotechnology and materials science. (2009): John Wiley & Sons.

[14] H.M. Leicester and H.S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry, 1400-1900. Vol. 5. (1952): Harvard University Press.

[15] O.M. Ozkendir, Boron Activity in Metal Containing Materials. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section B,  2 (2020)  48-54.

[16] R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring, General chemistry: principles and modern applications. Vol. 1. (2002): Prentice Hall.

[17] D.L. Reger, S.R. Goode and D.W. Ball, Chemistry: principles and practice. (2009): Cengage Learning.

[18] M. Schultz, S. Schmid and G.A. Lawrie, Research and Practice in Chemistry Education: Advances from the 25th IUPAC International Conference on Chemistry Education 2018. (2019): Springer.

[19] D. Shallcross and T. Harrison, Exploration: Public Engagement Activities for Chemistry Students, in The Power of Play in Higher Education. (2019), Springer.  145-158.

[20] F. Abdollahi, A. Taheri and M. Shahmari, Application of selective solid-phase extraction using a new core-shell-shell magnetic ion-imprinted polymer for the analysis of ultra-trace mercury in serum of gallstone patients. Separation Science and Technology, (2019)  1-14.

[21] G.S. Thorpe, CliffsAP 5 chemistry practice exams. (2007): Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

[22] C.G. Wermuth, The practice of medicinal chemistry. (2011): Academic Press.





Ayman Y. El-Khateeb, Metal Ions of Cations and Anions Separation and Detection Approach, Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.2020, 3(3), 202-220

DOI: 10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2020.3.3