Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy Research, Dehradun, (Uttarakhand), India

2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Northern Border University, Rafha, Saudi Arabia



Nutraceuticals provides medical and health benefits including the prevention and treatment of a disease. Nutraceuticals are naturally derived bioactive compounds that are found in foods, dietary supplements and herbal products, and have health promoting, disease preventing and medicinal properties. Nutraceuticals are the substances which are not traditionally recognized nutrients but which have positive physiological effects on the human body. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effects. Nutraceuticals are classifying on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements and dietary fiber. Herbal nutraceutical is used in maintaining health and act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. The nutraceutical revolution will lead us into a new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry will become research oriented to the pharmaceutical industry. The present review has been devoted towards understanding of the nutraceuticals from different medicinal plants based on their disease specific indications.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects


[1] V. Brower, Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nature biotechnology,  16 (1998)  728.

[2] G. Trottier, P.J. Boström, N. Lawrentschuk and N.E. Fleshner, Nutraceuticals and prostate cancer prevention: a current review. Nature Reviews Urology,  7 (2010)  21.

[3] A. Babaei, M. Aminikhah and A.R. Taheri, A Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-Tube and Nickel Hydroxide Nano-Particle Composite-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode as a New Sensor for the Sensitive Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid. Sensor letters,  11 (2013)  413-422.

[4] E.K. Kalra, Nutraceutical-definition and introduction. Aaps Pharmsci,  5 (2003)  27-28.

[5] B. Chauhan, G. Kumar, N. Kalam and S.H. Ansari, Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review. Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research,  4 (2013)  4.

[6] S.L. DeFelice, The nutraceutical revolution: its impact on food industry R&D. Trends in Food Science & Technology,  6 (1995)  59-61.

[7] D.B. Jack, Keep takingthe tomatoes—the exciting world of nutraceuticals. Molecular medicine today,  1 (1995)  118-121.

[8] M. Mannion, Nutraceutical revolution continues at foundation for innovation in medicine conference. Am J Nat Med,  5 (1998)  30-3.

[9] R. Rishi, Nutraceuticals: borderline between food and drug. Pharma Review, (2006)  51-53.

[10] G. Hardy, Nutraceuticals and functional foods: Introduction and meaning. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.),  16 (2000)  688.

[11] B. Esther, What is nutraceutical. Pharm. J,  265 (2000)  57-58.

[12] C. Cockbill, Food law and functional foods. British Food Journal,  96 (1994)  3-4.

[13] W.E. John, A.A. Ayi, C. Anyama, P.B. Ashishie and B.E. Inah, On the use of methylimidazolium acetate ionic liquids as solvent and stabilizer in the synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles by chemical reduction method. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section A,  2 (2019)  175-183.

[14] M.M. Heravi, N. Karimi and S. Pooremami, One-Pot Three Components Synthesis of 2, 4, 5-Triaryl-Imidazoles Catalyzed by Caro's Acid-Silica Gel Under Solvent–Free Condition. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section A,  2 (2019)  73-78.

[15] M.H. Nasirtabrizi and S.J. Mousavi, Synthesis and chemical modification of maleic anhydride copolymers with 2-amino ethyl benzoate groups. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section A,  1 (2018)  56-65.

[16] J. Zhao, Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application. Recent patents on biotechnology,  1 (2007)  75-97.

[17] C.J. Dillard and J.B. German, Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,  80 (2000)  1744-1756.

[18] A.O. Adelaja and B.J. Schilling, Nutraceuticals: blurring the line between food and drugs in the twenty-first century. Choices,  14 (1999)  35-39.

[19] O.P. Gulati and P.B. Ottaway, Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products. Toxicology,  221 (2006)  75-87.

[20] D.P. Richardson, Functional foods—shades of gray: an industry perspective. Nutrition Reviews,  54 (1996)  S174-S185.

[21] G.S. Kasbia, Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the management of obesity. Nutrition & Food Science,  35 (2005)  344-352.

[22] E.A. Conover, Over-the-counter products: nonprescription medications, nutraceuticals, and herbal agents. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology,  45 (2002)  89-98.

[23] M.M. Whitman, Understanding the perceived need for complementary and alternative nutraceuticals: Lifestyle issues. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing,  5 (2001) 

[24] K.K. Adom and R.H. Liu, Antioxidant activity of grains. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry,  50 (2002)  6182-6187.

[25] C. Alasalvar, F. Shahidi and P. Quantick, Food and health applications of marine nutraceuticals: a review, in Seafoods—quality, technology and nutraceutical applications. (2002), Springer.  175-204.

[26] B. Halliwell, Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annual review of nutrition,  16 (1996)  33-50.

[27] P.C. Bickford, J. Tan, R.D. Shytle, C.D. Sanberg, N. El-Badri and P.R. Sanberg, Nutraceuticals synergistically promote proliferation of human stem cells. Stem cells and development,  15 (2006)  118-123.

[28] C. Kokate, A. Gokhle and P. Khandelwal, Practical Pharmacognosy–Techniques and Experiments. Nirali Prakashan, Pune, India, Edition,  9 (2002)  149-53.

[29] S. Ross, Functional foods: the Food and Drug Administration perspective. The American journal of clinical nutrition,  71 (2000)  1735S-1738S.

[30] D. Bagchi, Nutraceuticals and functional foods regulations in the United States and around the world. Toxicology,  221 (2006)  1.

[31] M. Pandey, R.K. Verma and S.A. Saraf, Nutraceuticals: new era of medicine and health. Asian J Pharm Clin Res,  3 (2010)  11-15.

[32] V. Devi and F. Rehman, Nutraceutical Antioxidants-An over view. Indian journal of pharmaceutical education,  36 (2002)  3-8.

[33] P. Frasher, Phytosterols as functional food components and nutraceuticals. Phytochemistry,  67 (2006)  212-214.

[34] E. Nordkvist, A.C. Salomonsson and P. Åman, Distribution of insoluble bound phenolic acids in barley grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,  35 (1984)  657-661.

[35] C. Sirtori and C. Galli, Fatty acids and the Omega 3. Biomedecine and Pharmacotherapy,  56 (2002)  397-406.

[36] M.R. Subbiah, Nutrigenetics and nutraceuticals: the next wave riding on personalized medicine. Translational Research,  149 (2007)  55-61.

[37] M. Iriti and F. Faoro, Grape phytochemicals: a bouquet of old and new nutraceuticals for human health. Medical hypotheses,  67 (2006)  833-838.

[38] Y. Shukla and M. Singh, Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food and chemical toxicology,  45 (2007)  683-690.

[39] A. Abdul-Hamid and Y.S. Luan, Functional properties of dietary fibre prepared from defatted rice bran. Food chemistry,  68 (2000)  15-19.

[40] V.L. Mermel, Old paths new directions: the use of functional foods in the treatment of obesity. Trends in food science & technology,  15 (2004)  532-540.

[41] A.G. Dulloo, C. Duret, D. Rohrer, L. Girardier, N. Mensi, M. Fathi, P. Chantre and J. Vandermander, Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,  70 (1999)  1040-1045.

[42] S.J. Bell and G.K. Goodrick, A functional food product for the management of weight. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition,  42 (2002)  163-178.

[43] F. Brouns, Soya isoflavones: a new and promising ingredient for the health foods sector. Food Research International,  35 (2002)  187-193.

[44] M.M. Berger and A. Shenkin, Vitamins and trace elements: practical aspects of supplementation. Nutrition,  22 (2006)  952-955.

[45] C. Ramaa, A. Shirode, A. Mundada and V. Kadam, Nutraceuticals-an emerging era in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology,  7 (2006)  15-23.

[46] P. Burney, G. Comstock and J. Morris, Serologic precursors of cancer: serum micronutrients and the subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer. The American journal of clinical nutrition,  49 (1989)  895-900.

[47] L.C. Clark, G.F. Combs, B.W. Turnbull, E.H. Slate, D.K. Chalker, J. Chow, L.S. Davis, R.A. Glover, G.F. Graham and E.G. Gross, Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin: a randomized controlled trial. Jama,  276 (1996)  1957-1963.

[48] Y. Toyoda, L.R. Thomson, A. Langner, N.E. Craft, K.M. Garnett, C.R. Nichols, K.M. Cheng and C.K. Dorey, Effect of dietary zeaxanthin on tissue distribution of zeaxanthin and lutein in quail. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science,  43 (2002)  1210-1221.

[49] J. Weststrate and G. Meijer, Plant sterol-enriched margarines and reduction of plasma total-and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition,  52 (1998)  334.

[50] E. Block, The chemistry of garlic and onions. Sci Am,  252 (1985)  114-9.

[51] K. Pulliainen, H. Nevalainen, H. Väkeväinen, K. Jutila and C. Gummer, An analytical method for the determination of betaine (trimethylglycine) from hair. International journal of cosmetic science,  32 (2010)  135-138.

[52] A.P.B. Rabelo, E.B. Tambourgi and A. Pessoa Jr, Bromelain partitioning in two-phase aqueous systems containing PEO–PPO–PEO block copolymers. Journal of Chromatography B,  807 (2004)  61-68.

[53] P. Chen, S. Chang and H. Wu, Antimite activity of essential oils and their components from Cinnamomum osmophloeum. Quart. J. Chin. For,  35 (2002)  397-404.

[54] A. Dray, Mechanism of action of capsaicin-like molecules on sensory neurons. Life sciences,  51 (1992)  1759-1765.

[55] A. Steiber, J. Kerner and C.L. Hoppel, Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective. Molecular aspects of medicine,  25 (2004)  455-473.

[56] D. Vattem and K. Shetty, Biological functionality of ellagic acid: a review. Journal of food biochemistry,  29 (2005)  234-266.

[57] S. Okui, M. Uchiyama, M. Mizugaki and A. Sugawara, Intermediates of the oxidative breakdown of ricinoleic acid by Candida genus. Biochimica et biophysica acta,  70 (1963)  346-348.

[58] D. Taubert, R. Roesen, C. Lehmann, N. Jung and E. Schömig, Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. Jama,  298 (2007)  49-60.

[59] A.M. Anderson, M.S. Mitchell and R.S. Mohan, Isolation of curcumin from turmeric. Journal of chemical education,  77 (2000)  359.

[60] P. Mullineaux and G. Creissen. (1996), Portland Press Limited.

[61] J. Chauhan, S. Srivastava and M. Sultan, Hesperetin-7-rhamnoside from Cordia obliqua [roots]. Phytochemistry,  17 (1978)  334 -335.

[62] K.H. Lee and B.M. Lee, Evaluation of the genotoxicity of (−)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) isolated from Garcinia cambogia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A,  70 (2007)  388-392.

[63] H. Sakakibara, Y. Honda, S. Nakagawa, H. Ashida and K. Kanazawa, Simultaneous determination of all polyphenols in vegetables, fruits, and teas. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry,  51 (2003)  571-581.

[64] F. Størmer, R. Reistad and J. Alexander, Glycyrrhizic acid in liquorice—evaluation of health hazard. Food and Chemical Toxicology,  31 (1993)  303-312.

[65] K. Prasad, Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effect of flax lignan complex isolated from flaxseed. Atherosclerosis,  179 (2005)  269-275.

[66] T.T. Berendschot, R.A. Goldbohm, W.A. Klopping, J. van de Kraats, J. van Norel and D. van Norren, Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science,  41 (2000)  3322-3326.

[67] Y.-Y. Chang, J.-S. Liu, S.-L. Lai, H.-S. Wu and M.-Y. Lan, Cerebellar hemorrhage provoked by combined use of nattokinase and aspirin in a patient with cerebral microbleeds. Internal Medicine,  47 (2008)  467-469.

[68] A. Machowetz, H.E. Poulsen, S. Gruendel, A. Weimann, M. Fitó, J. Marrugat, R. de la Torre, J.T. Salonen, K. Nyyssonen and J. Mursu, Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans. The FASEB Journal,  21 (2007)  45-52.

[69] R.T. Holman, The slow discovery of the importance of ω3 essential fatty acids in human health. The journal of nutrition,  128 (1998)  427S-433S.

[70] R.E. MacDonald and C.J. Bishop, Phloretin: an antibacterial substance obtained from apple leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany,  30 (1952)  486-489.

[71] M.-P. St-Onge, B. Lamarche, J.-F. Mauger and P.J. Jones, Consumption of a functional oil rich in phytosterols and medium-chain triglyceride oil improves plasma lipid profiles in men. The Journal of nutrition,  133 (2003)  1815-1820.

[72] B.D. Gehm, J.M. McAndrews, P.-Y. Chien and J.L. Jameson, Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  94 (1997)  14138-14143.

[73] X. Ye, S. Al-Babili, A. Kloti and J. Zhang, Engineering the provitamin A beta-carotene biosynthetic pathway into carot. Science,  287 (2000)  5451.

[74] J. de Graaf, P.R. de Sauvage Nolting, M. van Dam, E.M. Belsey, J.J. Kastelein, P.H. Pritchard and A.F. Stalenhoef, Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. British Journal of Nutrition,  88 (2002)  479-488.

[75] J. Bland, Phytonutrition, phytotherapy, and phytopharmacology. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,  2 (1996)  73-76.

[76] G.R. Gibson and M.B. Roberfroid, Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. The Journal of nutrition,  125 (1995)  1401-1412.

[77] M.P. Peppelenbosch and C.V. Ferreira, Immunology of pre-and probiotic supplementation. British journal of nutrition,  101 (2008)  2-4.

[78] J. Hamilton-Miller, G.R. Gibson and W. Bruck, Some insights into the derivation and early uses of the word ‘probiotic’. British Journal of Nutrition,  90 (2003)  845-845.

[79] E. Ernst, Functional foods, neutraceuticals, designer foods: innocent fad or counterproductive marketing ploy? European journal of clinical pharmacology,  57 (2001)  353-355.

[80] J. Hathcock, Dietary supplements: how they are used and regulated. The Journal of nutrition,  131 (2001)  1114S-1117S.

[81] W. Andlauer and P. Fürst, Nutraceuticals: a piece of history, present status and outlook. Food Research International,  35 (2002)  171-176.

[82] B. Thomas, K. Ghebremeskel, C. Lowy, M. Crawford and B. Offley-Shore, Nutrient intake of women with and without gestational diabetes with a specific focus on fatty acids. Nutrition,  22 (2006)  230-236.

[83] M.A. Grusak and D. DellaPenna, Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annual review of plant biology,  50 (1999)  133-161.

[84] S. Baima, Plant genomics ad plant breeding: at the root of human nutrition and health. Curr Top Nutraceut Res,  3 (2005)  95-112.

[85] S. Acharya, J. Thomas and S. Basu, Improvement in the medicinal and nutritional properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Advances in medicinal plant research, Research Signpost, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, (2007) 

[86] M.A. Belem, Application of biotechnology in the product development of nutraceuticals in Canada. Trends in food science & technology,  10 (1999)  101-106.

[87] B. Schilter, C. Andersson, R. Anton, A. Constable, J. Kleiner, J. O'Brien, A. Renwick, O. Korver, F. Smit and R. Walker, Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations for use in food and food supplements. Food and Chemical Toxicology,  41 (2003)  1625-1649.

[88] M.F. Ahmad, S.A. Ashraf, F.A. Ahmad, J.A. Ansari and M.R.A. Siddiquee, Nutraceutical market and its regulation. Am J Food Technol,  6 (2011)  342-347.

[89] R. Kroes and R. Walker, Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods. Toxicology,  198 (2004)  213-220.

[90] M. Nabati, E. Lohrasbi, H. Sabahnoo, V. Bodaghi-Namileh, M. Mazidi, H. Mohammadnejad-Mehrabani, A. Tavakkoli and A. Gervand, In Silico Study of Metoclopramide as A Small Molecule of Dopamine D2 Receptor: a Quantum-Mechanical (QM) Based Molecular Docking Treatment. Chemical Methodologies,  4 (2020)  19-33.

[91] I. Amar, A. Sharif, M. Ali, S. Alshareef, F. Altohami, M. Abdulqadir and M.M. Ahwidi, Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions using Nano-Magnetic Adsorbent Based on Zinc-Doped Cobalt Ferrite. Chemical Methodologies,  4 (2020)  1-18.

[92] O. Ghasemi, N. Mehrdadi, M. Baghdadi and B. Aminzadeh, An investigation on absorption properties of exfoliated graphite for oil spill from Caspian Sea water. Iranian Chemical Communication,  7 (2019)  352-367.

[93] S.P. Patil, V.K. Mahajan, G.H. Sonawane and V.S. Shrivastava, Kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by ZnO-bentonite nanocomposite. Iranian Chemical Communication,  5 (2017)  417-428.

[94] P. Amudha, H. Famitha, V. Selvaraj, M. Sathiyaraj, P. Venkatesh and V. Rajendran, Propargylation of indole under a new dual-site phase-transfer catalyst: A kinetic study. Asian Journal of Green Chemistry,  2 (2018)  201-216.

[95] A.T. Adeleye, H. Louis, H.A. Temitope, M. Philip, P.I. Amos, T.O. Magu, A.U. Ozioma and O.O. Amusan, Ionic liquids (ILs): advances in biorefinery for the efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Asian Journal of Green Chemistry,  3 (2019)  391-417.

[96] C.L. Taylor, Regulatory frameworks for functional foods and dietary supplements. Nutrition reviews,  62 (2004)  55-59.

[97] D. Kaushik and N. Kaushik, Nutraceuticals Regulation In India. Pharma info. net,  7 (2009)  45-46.

[98] L. Das, E. Bhaumik, U. Raychaudhuri and R. Chakraborty, Role of nutraceuticals in human health. Journal of food science and technology,  49 (2012)  173-183.

[99] P. Agarwal, S. Alok, A. Fatima and A. Verma, CURRENT SCENARIO OF HERBAL TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE: AN OVERVIEW. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research,  4 (2013)  4105.

[100] A. Taheri and S. Mohammadi, Ultrasensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose detection based on pt electrode modified by carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide/nickel hydroxide-Nafion hybrid composite in alkaline media. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.,  1 (2018)  1-10.

[101] M.K. Aadesariya, V.R. Ram and P.N. Dave, Investigation of phytochemicals in methanolic leaves extracts of Abutilon pannosum and Grewia tenax by Q-TOF LC/MS. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.,  2 (2019)  13-19.

[102] O. Solomon, W. Rabiu Saidu Umar, H. Sanusi Wara, A. Sadiq Yakubu, M. Michael Azubuike, M. Asugu Mary and H. Louis, Antiulcerogenic Activity of methanol extract and solvent fractions of Stem Bark of Lannea acida (A. Rich) Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.,  1 (2019)  29-39.

[103] A.U. Itodo, O.M. Itodo, E. Iornumbe and M.O. Fayomi, Sorptive chelation of metals by inorganic functionalized organic WOx–EDA nanowires: adsorbent characterization and isotherm studies. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.,  1 (2019)  50-59.

[104] K.K. Alisher, T.S. Khamza and Y.S. Ikbol, Quantum-chemical study of geometric and energy characteristics of some bases of shiff gossipol. Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.,  2 (2019)  1-5.

[105] K. Kamari and A. Taheri, Preparation and evaluation of magnetic core–shell mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption of amitriptyline in biological samples. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers,  86 (2018)  230-239.

[106] Z.R. Zad, S.S.H. Davarani, A. Taheri and Y. Bide, A yolk shell Fe3O4@ PA-Ni@ Pd/Chitosan nanocomposite-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode as a new sensor for the sensitive determination of fluconazole in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Journal of Molecular Liquids,  253 (2018)  233-240.

[107] A. Babaei and A.R. Taheri, Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized on a novel chitosan-nickel hydroxide nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes biocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. Anal. Bioanal. Electrochem,  4 (2012)  342-356.

How to cite this manuscript:

M. Asif and I. Mohd, Prospects of Medicinal Plants Derived Nutraceuticals: A Re-emerging New Era of Medicine and Health Aid. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research,  2 (2019)  150-169.