Document Type: Original Research Article


Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal


Activated carbon (AC) has been successfully prepared from agricultural waste lapsi seed stone. The phosphoric acid activation was done by varying the ratio of H3PO4 and lapsi seed powder (LSP) from (0.9:1) to (1.5:1) which was followed by carbonization at 400 ºC in a tubular furnace under nitrogen atmosphere for 3 hrs. Besides this, precursor was preheated to 200˚C for 2-6 hrs. Thus prepared material was characterized by BET N2 adsorption- desorption process and showed high >1500 m2/g surface area with high pore volume. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using three electrode system where carbon electrode was used as working electrode, platinum as counter electrode and Ag/AgCl electrode as a reference electrode. CV has been found operating in acidic electrolyte solution of (1 M) H2SO4. The results revealed a very promising capacitance value of 202 F/g at current density of 1 A/g. Charge–discharge measurement showed a good indication of stable cyclic performance upto 1000 cycles at current density of 5A/g. Such electrochemical properties exhibit the high prospect for development of energy storage materials. As prepared activated carbon also showed excellent sensing ability towards vaporized solvent gases like methanol, acetone, benzene, hexane, pyridine, formaldehyde, toluene, water, acetic acid, ammonia.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects


[1] M. Ramathanan, L.K. Shrestha, T. Mori, Q. Ji, J.P. Hill and K. Ariga, Amphiphile Nanoarchitechtonis from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15 (2013) 10580-10611.

[2] K. Ariga, A. Vinu, Y. Yamauchi, T. Mori, Q. Ji and J.P. Hill, Nanoarchitectonics for mesoporous materials, Bulletin of. Chemical Society, Japan, 85 (2012) 1.  

[3] L. L. Zhang and X. S. Zhao, Carbon based materials as supercapacitor electrodes, Chemical Society Reviews, 38 (2009) 2520–2531.

[4] M. Sharon and Sharon M., Nano forms of carbon and application, Monad nanotech Pvt. Ltd , India, 2007.

[5] M. Plaza, C. Pevida, C. Martin, J. Fermoso, J. Pis and F. Rubiera, Developing almond shell-derived activated carbons as CO2 adsorbents, Separation Purification Technology, 71 (2010) 102–106.

[6] Q. Cao, K. C. Xie, Y. K. Lv and W. R. Bao, Process effects on activated carbon with large specific surface area from corn cob. Bioresearch Technology, 97 (2006) 110–115.

[7] B. S. Girgis, L. B. Khalil and T. A. M. Tawfik, Activated carbon from sugar cane bagasse by carbonization in the presence of inorganic acids Journal of Chemical Technology. And Biotechnology, 61 (1994), 87-92.

[8] Y. Nasehir, M. F. Pakir, M. Latiffa, I Abustana and M. A. Ahmadb, Effect of preparation conditions of activated carbon prepared from rice husk by ZnCl2 activation for removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solution International Journal of Engineering Technology, 10 (2010) 27–31.

 [9] B. Amarasinghe and R. Williams, Tea waste as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu and Pb from wastewater Chemical Engineering Journal, 132 (2007) 299–309.

[10] D. Shrestha, S. Maensiri, U. Wongpratat, S.W. Lee, A. Rajbhandari (Nyachhyon), Shorea robusta derived activated carbon decorated with manganese dioxide hybrid composite for improved capacitive behaviors, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7 (2019) 103227.

[11]  A. R. Mohammad, M. Mohammadi and G.N. Darzi, Preparation of carbon molecular sieve from lignocellulosic biomass: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (2010) 1591-1599.

[12] H. March and R. F. Reinoso, Activated Carbon, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006.

[13] Poudel K. C., Domesticating Lapsi, Choerospondias axillaris Roxb. (B. L. Brutt & A. W. Hill) for fruit production in the middle mountain agroforestry systems in Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Science, 1 (2003) 55–58.

[14] N. V. Sych, S. I. Trofymenko, O. I. Poddubnaya, M.M. Tsyba, V. I. Sapsay, D.O. Klymchuk  , and  A.M. Puziy, Applied Surface Science, 261 (2012) 75–82.

[15] W. Chaikittisilp, M. Hu, H. Wang, H. S. Huang, T. Fuita, K. C. W. Wu, L. C. Chen, Y. Yamauchi and K. Ariga, Chemistry Communication, 48 (2012) 7259–7261.

[16] R. R. Salunkhe, Y. Kamachi, N. L. Torad, S. W. Hwang, Z. Sun, S. X. Dou, J. H. Kim and Y. Yamauchi, Journal of Material Chemistry A, 2 (2014) 19848–19854.

[17] R. Rajbhandari, L. K. Shrestha, B. P. Pokharel and R. R. Pradhananga, Development of nanoprous structure in carbons by chemical activation with zinc chloride, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 13 (2013) 2613– 2623