Document Type: Review Article


1 Department of Environmental Civil Engineering-Water and Wastewater Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran



The production of industrial wastewater containing synthetic dyes is one of the most important pollutants in the environment. In recent years, sustainable development and generational attention have led researchers to work on ways to reduce environmental degradation and reduce pollution spreads, but as industries become wider and larger, pollution from their activities it threatens the environment more. Colors are an important class of pollutants that can be detected by the human eye. Although valuable water resources should be avoided, different technologies and processes are used to solve this problem. However, among the various methods available for dye removal, surface adsorption has taken a prominent place. Demand for efficient and low-cost methods of adsorption is growing and the importance of low-cost adsorbents for replacement of expensive adsorbents has increased. In this study, the method of chemical activation of almond shell was performed by phosphoric acid activating agent. It was found that the effect of phosphoric acid activating agent on almond shell increased adsorbent surface area and adsorption capacity. Studies have shown that the smaller the almond shell particle size, the higher the contact area of the activating agent and the resulting increase in absorption..

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