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Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria

2 Medical Microbiology unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Iyienu Hospital Ogidi, Anambra state, Nigeria


Vigna subterranea, a legume regarded as a ‘super food’ in Nigeria has been grossly understudied and underutilised and this study investigated the constituents of the various parts of this plant for possible utilization. The seed, leaf and root of the plant were analysed to assay the phytochemical constituents using standard gravimetric methods, nutritional and amino acid constituents using both gravimetric and spectroscopic as well as the antimicrobial activities using Agar well diffusion method. The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed high percentage content of alkaloids (0.34 ±0.02), flavonoids (0.373 ± 0.01) and tannins (0.327±0.013) on the leaf followed by the root with the highest saponins content (0.433 ± 0.02). Steroids were found in moderate quantities on all tested parts. The nutritional analysis showed high protein content on all the parts. The leaf had the highest vitamin C content (6.453mg/100g) while vitamin B3 was found to be highest in the seeds(2.123mg/100g) The total essential amino acids (g/100g) in seed, leaf and root were 42.44, 39.85, and 30.82 respectively, while total non-essential amino acids (g/100g) were 50.05, 46.84, and 38.25 respectively. The antimicrobial analysis showed n-hexane extract of the root having the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24 ± 1.41 mm zone of inhibition). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for n-hexane extract was 100 mg/L while the Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) was 200 mg/L.  indicates a good antimicrobial agent. The leaf and root of Vigna subterranea can no longer be regarded as post -harvest wastes but potential sources of drugs and nutrients.

Graphical Abstract

Comparative Phytochemical, Nutritional and Antimicrobial Screening of the Seed, Leaf and Root of Vigna Subterranea.


  • Cultivation and harvesting of Vigna Subterranea plant
  • Analysis of leaf, seed and root of Vigna Subterranea
  • Phyto-chemical analysis was conducted on the leaf, seed and root of the Vigna Subterranea plant
  • Elemental and Vitamin B & C constituents of the Vigna Subterranea plant was also analyzed
  • Essential and non-essential amino acid constituents of the Vigna Subterranea plant were determined
  • Antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracts of the various parts of the Vigna Subterranea plants were studied


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