Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Insect Population Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


As field populations of black cutworms grow more resistant to conventional insecticides, the need for new and effective chemical means to control this insect is more important than ever. In this study, we examined the biochemical mechanisms underlying the toxicity of the sublethal effect of the new insecticides (emamectin benzoate, indoxicarb, chloranitraniliprole, and pyridalyl) against two strains of Agrotis ipsilon comprising the laboratory-susceptible (L-S) and the field-resistant (BK-R). Activity measurements of the main detoxification enzymes showed that new insecticides inhibited the activities of both glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamine pyruvic transaminase (GPT), whereas the significant activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) was observed, suggesting that the inhibition of detoxification contributes to the enhancement toxicity against A. ipsilon larvae. A significant decrease in the effect of sublethal dose was also observed between the control larvae in the content of protein, lipid, and glycogen, and treated larvae in two strains. According to these results, the treated larvae were negatively affected in both two tested strains compared with untreated larvae in control.

Graphical Abstract

Biochemical Studies in Larvae of Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel) Affected by Recent Insecticides


Main Subjects

[1] FL Fernandes, JFS Diniz, PR Silva, E Mosca, Damage of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae) on Coffea Arabica in Brazil. Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 39 (2013) 49-50. ID: 83306108.
 [2] F He, S Sun, H Tan, X Sun, C Qin, S Ji, X Li, J Zhang, X Jiang, Chlorantraniliprole against the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae): From biochemical/physiological to demographic responses. Scientific Reports, 9 (2019) 10328.
[3] SM Ismail, Field persistence of certain new insecticides and their efficacy against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel). Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 45 (2020) 17–24.
[4] MJ Joshi, A Rana, PV Raj, S Kaushal, AG Inamdar, KS Verma, RS Chandel, The potency of chemical insecticides in management of cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hüfnagel (Noctüidae: Lepidoptera): A review, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 8 (2020) 307-311.
[5] C Xu, Z Zhang, K Cui, Y Zhao, J Han, F Liu, W Mu, Effects of sublethal concentrations of cyantraniliprole on the development, fecundity and nutritional physiology of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae). PLoS One 1 (2016) e0156555.
 [6] Rimpy, SK Verma, Efficacy of novel insecticides against cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae) infesting cabbage. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6 (2018) 824-827.
[7] Van den Bosch TJM, Welte CU, Detoxifying symbionts in agriculturally important pest insects. Microbial Biotechnology, 10 (2017) 531-540.
[8] MAH Kandil, EA Sammour, NF Abdel-Aziz, EA Agamy, AM El-Bakry, NM Abdelmaksoud, Comparative toxicity of new insecticides generations against tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta and their biochemical effects on tomato plants. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44 (2020) 126.
[9] DF Grant, F Matsumura, Glutathione S-transferase 1 and 2 in susceptible and insecticide resistant Aedes aegypti. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 33 (1989) 132-143.
[10] J Wu, J Li, C Zhang, X Yu, AGS Cuthbertson, S Ali, Biological impact and enzyme activities of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae) in response to synergistic action of Matrine and Beauveria brongniartii, Invertebrate Physiology, 11 (2020) 584405.
[11] WF Tordior, EAH VanHeemstra-Leqin, Field studies monitoring exposure and effect in the development of pesticides. Elsevier: Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, (1980) eBook ISBN: 9780080874777
[12] R Buès, JC Bouvier, L Boudinhon, Insecticide resistance and mechanisms of resistance to selected strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae) in the south of France, Crop Protection, 24 (2005) 814–820.
 [13] MM Khan, RM Kaleem-Ullah, JA Siddiqui, S Ali, Insecticide resistance and detoxification enzymes activity in Nilaparvata lugens Stål against neonicotinoids. Journal of Agricultural Science, 12 (2020) 24.
[14] S Chowanski, J Lubawy, M Spochacz, P Ewelina, S Grzegorz, G Rosinski, M Slocinska, Cold induced change in lipid, protein and carbohydrate levels in the tropical insect Gromphadorhina coquereliana, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 183 (2015) 57-63.
[15] NGC Ferreira, R Morgado, MJG Santos, AMVM Soares, S Loureiro, Biomarkers and energy reserves in the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: the effects of long-term exposure to dimethoate. Science of the Total Environment, 502 (2015) 91-102.
[16] SM Ismail, ShH Sameh, MA El-Malla, MM Abdel-Sattar, Influences of sublethal dose of certain insecticides on biological and biochemical against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisdüval). Egyptian Journal of Plant Protection Research, 6 (2018) 1-16.
[17] AL Lutz, I Bertolaccini, RR Scotta, MC Curis, MA Favaro, LN Fernandez, DE Sánchez, Lethal and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on and on Spodoptera cosmioides (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae). Pest Management Science, 74 (2018) 2817–2821.
[18] M Nawaz, W Cai, Z Jing, X Zhou, JI Mabubu, H Hua, Toxicity and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the development and fecundity of a non- specific predator, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Chemosphere, 178 (2017) 496-503.
[19] DJ Finney, Probit analysis, 3rd edn. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England, (1971) p 318.
[20] DA Vessey, TD Boyer, Differential activation and inhibition of different forms of rat liver glutathione S-transferase by the herbicides 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetate (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetate (2,4,5-T). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, l73 (1984) 492–499.
[21] S Reitman, SA Frankel, colorimetric determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28 (1957) 56-36.
[22] OH Lowry, JN Rosebrough, LAL Farry, JR Randall, Protein measurements with folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193 (1951) 265-271. PMID: 14907713
[23] E Van Handel, Microseparation of glycogen, sugars, and lipids. Analytical Biochemistry, 11 (1965) 266-271.
[24] JA Knight, S Anderson, JM Rawle, Chemical basis of the sulphophosphat-vanilin reaction for estimating total serum lipids. Clinical Chemistry, 18 (1972) 199-202. PMID: 5020813
 [25] X Wang, SK Khakame, C Ye, Y Yang, Y Wu, Characterisation of field-evolved resistance to chlorantraniliprole in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, from China. Pest Management Science, 69 (2013) 661–665.
[26] NS Çağatay, P Menault, M Riga, J Vontas, R Ay, Identification and characterization of abamectin resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch populations from greenhouses in Turkey. Crop Protection, 112 (2018) 112–117.
[27] VL Le Gall, GM Klafke, TT Torres, Detoxification mechanisms involved in ivermectin resistance in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Scientific Reports, 8 (2018)1–10.
[28] SM Ismail, Effect of sublethal doses of some insecticides and their role on detoxication enzymes and protein-content of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctüidae). Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 44 (2020) 35-41.
 [29] N Pavlidi, J Vontas, TV Leeuwe, The role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in insecticide resistance in crop pests and disease vectors. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 27 (2018) 97-102.
[30] B Hu, S Hu, H Huang, Q Wei, M Ren, S Huang, X Tian, J Su, Insecticides induce the co-expression of glutathione S-transferases through ROS/CncC pathway in Spodoptera exigua. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 155 (2019) 58-71.
[31] EE. Enan, IG. Berberian, Interaction of pesticide exposure level with some biochemical enzymes among field workers. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 3 (1986) 76-90.
[32] KS. Hamadah, Disturbance of phosphatase and transaminase activities in of the red palm weevil. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by certain insecticidal compounds. JoBAZ 80 (2019) 52.
[33] EL Arrese, JL Soulages, Insect fat body: Energy, metabolism and regulation. Annual Review of Entomology, 55 (2010) 207-225.
[34] S Suchail, AL Navenant, Y Capowiez, A Thiéry, M Rault, An exploratory study of energy reserves and biometry as potential tools for assessing the effects of pest management strategies on the earwig, Forficula auricularia L. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25 (2018) 22766-22774.
[35] MK Lohar, DJ Wright, Changes in the lipid content in heamolymph, fat body and oocytes of malathion treated Tenebrio molitor L. adult females. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 25 (1993) 57-60.
[36] RR Binning, J Coats, X Kong, RL Hellmich, Susceptibility to Bt protein is not required for Agrotis ipsilon aversion to Bt maize. Pest Management Science, 71 (2015) 601-606.
[37] O Sak, F Uckan, E Eegin, Effects of cypermethrin on total body weight, glycogen, protein, and lipid contents of Pimpla turionellaei (L.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Belgian Journal of Zoology, 136 (2006) 53-58.