ISC, CAS, Google Scholar     h-index: 20

Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Insect Population Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Gossypol level plays an important role in self-protection as antibiosis of cotton plants(Gossypium spp.). Thus, it was found necessary to evaluated the level of gossypol in the different parts during the stages of growth of cotton plant for three cotton cultivars viz., Giza 86, Giza 80, and Giza 45. Their performance against cotton thrips, Thrips tabaci and pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella under field conditions was studied.Statistical analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between the gossypol content in the seed pulp of different varieties of cotton and the amount of gossypol detected in the different parts of the produced plants. The level of gossypol in seeds were significantly higher on Giza 86, and Giza 45 having 1.90% and 1.52%, respectively, whereas the level of gossypol was limited in Giza 80 (1.45%). Therefore, cotton variety, Giza 86 showed higher levels of gossypol in all parts of plant.In field tests during 2019, the results indicated that the higher content of gossypol had a negative effect on population size both T. tabaci (adult and nymph) and P. gossypiella larvae that infested cotton bolls. Cotton thrips and pink bollworm population exhibited negative response to gossypol content. According to the results, the cotton varieties could be arranged in the following descending order concerning their susceptibility to infestation with these pests: Giza 80, Giza 45 and Giza 86.

Graphical Abstract

Gossypol as a Natural Insecticide in Cotton Plants against Cotton Thrips and Pink Bollworm


Main Subjects

[1] SM. Ismail, Field evaluation of recommended compounds to control some pests attacking cotton and their side effects on associated predators. J. Biol. Chem. Res., 36 (2019) 113-121.
[2] PW. Nemade, TH. Rathod, SB. Deshmukh, VV. Ujjainkar, et al. Evaluation of new molecules against sucking pests of Bt cotton. J. Entomol. Zool. Studies, 5 (2017) 659-663.
[3] BB. Fand, V. Nagrare, S. Gawande, D. Nagrale, et al. Widespread infestation of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera:Gelechidae) onBt cotton inCentral India: A new threat and concerns for cotton production. Phytoparasitica, 47 (2019) 1-13.             
[4] BA. Duisembecova, IM. Dubovskiyb, VV. Glupov, Effect of plant secondary metabolites on susceptibility of insects to entomopathogenic microorganisms. Contemp. Probl. Ecol., 10 (2017) 286–292.
[5] C. Trapero, IW. Wilson, WN. Stiller, LJ. Wilson, Enhancing integrated pest management in               GM cotton systems using host plant resistance. Front Plant Sci., 7 (2016) 500-509.
[6] X. Tian, J. Ruan, J. Huang, X. Fang, et al. Gossypol: phytoalexin of cotton. Sci. China Life Sci., 59 (2016) 122–129.
[7] SK. Surinder-Singh, SK. Kansal-Sharma, Extraction of gossypol from cottonseed. Rev. Adv. Sci. Eng., 4 (2015) 301–318.
[8] X. Li, MA. Schuler, MR. Berenbaum, Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 52 (2007) 231–253.
[9] J. Fürstenberg-Hägg, M. Zagrobelny, S. Bak, Plant defense against insect herbivores. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14 (2013) 10242–10297.
[10] C. Krempl, HM. Heidel-Fischer, GH. Jiménez-Alemán, M. Reichelt, RC. et al. Gossypol toxicity and detoxification in Helicoverpa armigera and Heliothis virescens. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 78 (2016) 69–77.           
[11] X. Tian, X. Fang, J. Huang, L. Wang, et al. A gossypol biosynthetic intermediate disturbs plants defence response. Biol. Sci., 374 (2019) 1471-1479.
[12] FH. Smith, Determination of gossypol in leaves, flowers, and buds of Gossypium. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 44 (1971) 267-269.         
[13] FH. Smith, Determination of free and bound gossypol in swine tissues. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 42 (1965) 145-146.
[14] CF. Henderson, EW. Telton, Tests with acaricides against the brown wheat mite. J. Econ. Entomol., 48 (1955) 157-161.
[15] RG. Percy, MC. Calhoun, HL. Kim, Seed gossypol variation within Gossypium barbadense L. cotton. Crop Sci., 36 (1996) 193–197.
[16] X. Wang, CP. Howell, F. Chen, J. Yin, Y. Jiang, Gossypol-A polyphenolic compound from cotton plant. Adv. Food Nutr. Res., 58 (2009) 215–263.
[17] B. Ricci, G. Canestrari, V. Pizzamiglio, A. Biancardi, et al. Gossypol content of cotton free commercial feed for dairy cows. Ital. J. Food. Saf. 4 (2015) 5174-5180.
[18] XY. Tao, XY. Xue, YP. Huang, XY. Chen, YB. Mao, Gossypol- enhanced P450 gene pool contributes to cotton bollworm tolerance to a pyrethroid insecticide. Mol. Ecol., 21 (2012) 4371–4385.
[19] ICN. Gadelha, NBS. Fonseca, SCS. Oloris, MM.  
     Melo, B. Soto-Brunna, Gossypol toxicity from  
     cottonseed products. Sci. World J., 2014 
     (2014) 231635.
 [20] M. Zhou, C. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Tang, Metabolic engineering of gossypol in cotton. Applied              Microb. Biotech., 97 (2013) 6159–6165.
[21] AR. Luis, PN. Biiniza, M. Xoaquín, PT. Víctor, et al. Effects of early‐season insect herbivory on subsequent pathogen infection and ant abundance on wild cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). J. Ecology., 107 (2019) 1518-1529.
[22] HM. Flint, TJ. Henneberry, FD. Wilson, E. Holguin, et al. The effects of transgenic cotton,          Gossypium hirsutum L., containing Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes for the control of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) and other arthropods. Southwestern Entomologist., 20 (1995) 281-292.
[23] G. Konga, MK. Daud, S. Zhu, Effects of pigment glands and gossypol on growth,                 development and insecticide-resistance of cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera (Hübner). Crop Prot., 29 (2010) 813-819.
[24] S. Zebelo, J. Disi, R. Balusu, B. Reeves, H. Fadamiro, Spodoptera exigua modulates gossypol biosynthesis in cotton Gossypium hirsutum. J. Plant Interact., 12 (2017) 121–127.
[25] SM. Ismail, Responses of multiple generations of Spodoptera littoralis feeding on gossypol. Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biomed. Res., 8 (2020) 314-320.
[26] C. Karavina, R. Mandumbu, C. Parwada, T. Mungunyana, Variety and planting date effects on the incidence of bollworms and insect sucking pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Res. J. Agric. Sci., 3 (2012) 607-610.
[27] K. Ma, Q. Tang, P. Liang, J. Xia, et al. Toxicity and sublethal effects of two plant allelochemicals on the demographical traits of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover(Hemiptera: Aphididae). PLOS ONE, 19 (2019) e0221646