Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

Federal university of agriculture makurdi, College of science, Department of chemistry benue state, Nigeria

Abstract

In this study, stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), a traditional medicinal, plant used for treatment of various diseases. The diseases was phytochemically screened by cold maceration using hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. Results revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, and phytosterols. Separation and purification of the ethyl acetate extracts by column chromatography (CC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and characterization with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analyses, led to isolation of spinasterol, established on the basis of both 13C and 1H NMR spectral data and by comparison with literature. It was also confirmed that, spinasterol cures diabetes by reducing serum triglycerides. This is the first report on isolation of spinasterol from the stem bark of Crossopteryx febrfuga.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] Mamta S., Jyoti S., Rajeev N., Dharmendra S. Abhishek G. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem.2013, 1: 168

[2] Himani R., Garima S., Nupur J., Neelam S., Navneeta B. Turk. J. Bot., 2014, 38: 1027

[3] Singh R. J. Plant Sci., 2015, 3: 50

[4] Nwachukwu C.U., Umeh C.N., Kalu I.G., Okere S., Nwoko M.C., Report and Opinion, 2010, 2: 1

[5] Chukwuemeka I.M., Udeozo I. P., Odo M. C., Oraekwute E. E., Onyeze R. C. Ugwu O.P.C.  Int. J. Res. Rev. Pharm. Appl. Sci., 2013, 3: 470

[6] Olasehinde G., Olusola O., Adegboyega O.A., Obasola E.F., Neena V., Isaac O. A., Adesola A.A., Louis, O.E., Malar. J., 2014, 13: 63

[7] Emiola O. K.S., Abbah E.A., Odeyemi J.B., Taiwo T.B., Int. res. j. eng. tech., 2015, 2: 550

[8] Mrinmay D., Ashok K.D., Mastanaiah K., Arup D., Int. j. pharm. sci. res., 2015, 6: 1027

[9] Adikwu U.M., Uzuegbu D.B., Okoye T.C., Uzor P.F., Adibe, M.O., Amadi, B.V, J. Basic. Clin. Pharm., 2010, 1: 197

[10] Khan M.E., Yakubu U.D., Kubmarawa D. Br. J. Appl. Sci. Technol., 2015, 5: 396

[11] Tor-Anyiin T.A., Igoli J.O., Anyam J.N., J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 2015, 40: 71

[12] Rasooli I. (Ed.). Phytochemicals: Bioactivities and Impact on Health. BoD–Books on Demand, 2011

[13] Shobha G.S.C., Shashidhara K.S., Vinutha M., Int. Res. J., 2014, 5: 273

[14] Gbolahan W.A., Titus A.O., Isiaka A.A., Gbolahan-Ayoade E.E., Int. J. Sci. Res., 2014, 4: 1

[15] Atawodi S., Samson Y., Emmanuel O., Precious I., Mercy O., Haruna Y., Sakina D. M., Annu. Res. Rev. Biol., 2015, 5: 501

[16] Bassoueka D.J., Taiwe S.G., Nsonde N.G.F., Ngo B.E., Int. J. Sci. Res., 2016, 5:112

[17] Tsabang N., Yedjou C.G., Tsambang L.W.D., Tchinda A.T., Donfagsiteli N., Agbor G.A., Tchounwou P.B.B., Nkongmeneck B.A., Med. Aromat. Plants, 2015, S2: 003

[18] Orwa C., Mutua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R., Anthony S., Crossopteryx febrifuga Agroforest Tree Database: A Tree Reference and Selection Guide Version 4.0. 1-5. 2009. Retrieved from http.worldagroforestry.org/af/tree/ (Databases 2009; 4/2/17)

[19] Ojewale A.O., Olaniyan O.T., Yemitan O.K., Odukanmi O.A., Dare B.J., Nnaemeka W.S., Omoaghe O., Akingbade A.M., Ogunmodede O.S., Adebari A.O., Mintage J. Pharm. Med. Sci., 2013, 2: 48

 [20] Prashant T., Bimlesh K., Mandeep K., Gurpreet K., Harleen K., Int. Pharm. Sci., 2011, 1: 98

[21] Anyam J.N., Tor-Anyiin T.A., Igoli J.O., Res. Chem. Pharm. Sci, 2015, 2: 32

[22] Khan M.E., Anyam J.V., Okwudili E.E., J. Sci. Res., 2015, 3: 252

[23] Tor-Anyiin T.A., Shimbe R.Y., J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 2012, 37: 69

[24] Meneses-Sagrero S.E., Moisés N., Eduardo R., Carmen L.D., Manuel J., Ramón E.R., Saudi Pharm. J., 2017, 25:1137

[25] El-Domiaty M.M., Mahmoud M.A.A., Zeinab I.A.E., Shimaa E., Nora T.W., Biosci. biotech. res. asia, 2013, 10: 533

[26] Turibio K.T., Ache R.N., Talontsi F., Tala M.F., Yeboah O.S., Ngadjui T.B., Int. J. Chem. Pharm. Sci., 2015, 3: 1764

[27] Wilzer K.A., Spectral Studies of Constituents of Members of the Family Asteraceae.  Louisiana State University (LSU) Historical Dissertations and Theses. 4214. 1986.  http://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool-disstheses/4214. Pp 59-63

[28] Yadessa M., Bioassay Directed Chemical Study of Antimalarial Substances from Clerodendrum myricoides and Dodonaea angustifolia and Comparative Chemical Studies of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera. Ph.D thesis. Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University. 2015, p 31

[29] Ayu M., Adlis S., Djaswir D., Int. J. Chem. Pharm. Anal., 2016, 3: 1

[29] Jeong S.I., Kim K.J., Choi M.K, Keum K.S., Lee S., Ahn S.H., Back S.H., Song J.H., Ju Y.S., Choi B.K., Jung K.Y., Planta Med., 2004, 70: 736

 [30] Jeong G.S., Li B., Lee D.S., Kim K.H., Lee I.K., Lee K.R., Kim Y.C., Int. Immunopharmacol., 2010, 10: 1587

[31] Borges F., Silva M., Cordova M., Schambach T., Pizzolatti M., Santos A., J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 151: 144

[32] Klein L.C., Gandolfi R.B., Santin J.R., Lemos M., Filho V.C., De Andrade S.F., Naunyn Schmiedebergs. Arch. Pharmacol., 2010, 381: 121

[33] Villaseñor I.M., Lemon P., Palileo A., Bremner J.B., Mutat. Res., 1996, 360: 89

[34] Ntie-kang F., Yong J.N., RSC Adv., 2014, 4: 61975

[35] Socała K., Nieoczym D., Pieróg M., Wlaz P., J. Neural. Transm.,2015, 122: 1239

[36] Socała K., Wlaz P., Behav. Brain Res., 2016, 303: 19

[37] Gook-Che J., Myoung-Soon P., Do-Young Y., Chul-Ho S., Hong-Sig S., Soo-Jong U., Exp. Mol. Med.,  2005, 37: 111