Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Chemistry, Doroud Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box: 133. Doroud. Iran.



In this study, the heat transfer coefficient of the pool boiling is evaluated in the nuclear region for the fluid at different concentrations of water-ethanol solution on a horizontal cylinder at 1 atm. For this purpose is examined the diameter of the growing bubble of water-ethanol solution in a heat flux range of 1 to 60 kW.m-2 in different concentrations on the horizontal cylinder of stainless steel. The results show that by an increase in heat flux, bubble diameter increases. The diameter of the bubbles created in heat flux is examined and compared with different dynamic models that according to the calculated average error of the model. Hamzehkhani model has better consistency with the experimental data. Recently, optimization methods have been widely used in fuzzy equilibrium calculations. Among these methods, genetic algorithms can be used to calculate the binary interaction components of activity coefficient patterns in equilibrium systems. The equations and relations of previous for the solution have a high error in predicting the heat transfer coefficient, so using the obtained data and applying the genetic algorithm. A newer experimental equation is presented which has a good fitting with the experimental data.

Graphical Abstract

Presentation and evaluation of a new model for bubble growth in two-component solution pool boiling


Main Subjects

[1] L.L. Manetti, A.S.O.H. Moita, E.M. Cardoso. A new pool boiling heat transfer correlation for wetting dielectric fluids on metal foams.International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 171 (2021) 121070.
[2] V. Vajc, R. Šulc, M. Dostál. Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients in Mixtures of Water
and Glycerin. Processes. 9:830 (2021) 1-19.
[3] R. Kaniowski, R. Pastuszko. Pool Boiling of Water on Surfaces with Open Microchannels. Energies. 14: 3062 ( 2021) 1-21.
[4] Y.Y. Jiang, H.Osada, M. Inagaki, N.Horinouchi. Dynamic modeling on bubble growth, detachment and heat transferfor hybrid-scheme computations of nucleate boiling. Int. J. HeatMass Transfer 56 (2013) 640–652.
[5] Z.Cao, Z.Wu, S. Abbood, B. Sundén.An analysis of pool boiling heat transfer on nanoparticle-coated surfaces. Energy Procedia, 158 (2019)5880-5887.
[6] M. Sattari and L. Mahdavian. Thermodynamic properties of the bubble growth process in a pool boling of water-ethanol mixture two-component system.Open chemistry. 17 (2019) 1-8.
[7] Ch. Zhao, M.Q. Gong , L. Ding, X. Zou, G.F. Chen, J.F. Wu, An experimental investigation on the entire pool boiling curve of R14 under 0.1 MPa pressure, international journal of refrigeration.  41 (2014) 164-170.
[8] K.G. Rajulu, R. Kumar, B. Mohanty, H.K. Varma, Enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient by reentrant cavity surfaces. Heat and Mass Transfer. 41(2004) 127–132.
[9] M.M. Sarafraz, F. Hormozi, S.M. Peyghambarzadeh, E. Salari. Experimental study on the influence of SO2 gas injection to pure liquids on pool boiling heat transfer coefficients. Heat and Mass Transfer. 50 (2014) 747–757.
[10] A.D. Stojanović, S.V. Belošević, N.Đ. Crnomarković, I.D. Tomanović, A.R. Milićević. Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer: Review of models and bubble dynamics parameters. Thermal Science. (2021) 69-69.
[11] C.A. Chen, K.W. Li, T.F. Lin, W.K. Li, W.M. Yan. Study on heat transfer and bubble behavior inside horizontal annuli: Experimental comparison of R-134a, R–407C, and R-410A subcooled flow boiling. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering.  24 (2021) 100875.
[12] M.M.Sarafraz, S.M. Peyghambarzadeh, S.A.Alavi Fazel. Experimental studies on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to ethanol/MEG/DEG ternary mixture as a new coolant. Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly/CICEQ. 18 (4) (2012) 577-586.
[13] W. Fritz. Berechnung des Maximalvolumens vonDampfblasen ed. Phys. Z 36 (1935) 379e384.
[14] M.M. Sarafraz, A.S. Alavi Fazel, Y. Hasanzadeh, A. Arabshamsabadi, S. Bahram. Development of a new correlation for estimating pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of MEG/DEG/water ternary mixture. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly/CICEQ. 18(1) (2012) 11-18.
[15] K. Stephan, K. Abdelsalam. 1980. Heat transfer correlation for boiling. Int. J. Heat. Mass Transf 23 (1980) 73e87.
[16] M. Jamialahmadi, A. Helalizadeh. H. Mu¨ller-Steinhagen. Boiling heat transfer to electrolyte solutions. Int. J. Heat. MassTransf 47:4 (2004) 729-742.
[17] S.A. AlaviFazel, S. B. Shafaee. Bubble dynamics fornucleate pool boiling of electrolyte solutions. ASME. J. Heat.Transf. 132 (8) (2010) 825021e825027.
[18] S. Hamzekhani, M. Maniavi Falahieh, A. Akbari. Bubble departure diameter in nucleate pool boiling at saturation: Pure liquids and binary mixtures. Int. J. Refrigeration. 46 (2014) 50–58.
[19] S.A. Alavi Fazel, A. A. Safekordi, M. Jamialahmadi, boiling heat transfer in water/Amines solutions, IJE Transactions. 21:2 (2008)113-131.
[20] S.A. Alavi Fazel, M. Mahboobpour, Pool boiling heat transfer in monoethyleneglycol aqueous solutions. Experimental Thermal Fluid Science. 48 (2013) 177–183.
[21] M.M. Sarafraz, Nucleate pool boiling of aqueous solution of citric acid on a smoothed horizontal cylinder. Heat and Mass Transfer. 48 (2012) 611–619.