Document Type : Original Research Article


1 College of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

2 New Rural Development Research Institute of Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China

3 Department of Biology,Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, 11111, Sudan

4 Department of Basic Sciences, University of Zalingei, Zalingei, 11111 Sudan.

5 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, 11111, Sudan

6 College of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.


The study was carried out in reason of investigating the phytochemical constituents that could be present in the Ziziphus spina Christi Sudanese plant, by using two different analytical methods such as the Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrum (GC-MS) and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Z. spina Christi Fruit pulp oil was extracted with four solvents methanol, petroleum ether, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, using Soxhlet apparatus, The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (GC-MS) was carried out to analyze the methanolic fruit pulp oil extract, the results indicated to the presence of thirty-two phytochemical compounds. Ten of them are majors, namely9-Octadecenoic acid compounds, methyl ester, (E) - (17.07%), 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane,1-methyl-4-(2-methyloxiranyl)- (16.43%), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z) -, methyl ester (10.6%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (8.78%), methyl stearate (6.71%), Docosanoic acid, Methyl ester (4.22%), cis-13-Eicosenoic acid, methyl ester (3.43%)%), methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate (2.98%), squalene (2.38%), 9-tricosine, (Z) - (2.4%).While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was carried out for ( methanol, petroleum ether, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol ) fruit pulp oil extract the result showed the presence of many active functional groups such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkenes, carbonyls, and Carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds in the extracts with different peak types and correspondences. The GC-MS and FTIR analysis showed the availability of bioactive compounds in the Ziziphus spina fruits pulp oil extracts, and these ingredients may be responsible for pharmaceutical value and could lead to the discovery a novel drugs

Graphical Abstract

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrum andFourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fixed Oil from Sudanese Ziziphus spina Christi Fruits Pulp


Main Subjects

[1]          S. M. Khaleel, R. A. Almuhur, T. M. Al-deeb, A. S. Jaran, A. A. Al-jamal, and A. S. Abu-zaiton, Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus spina-christi on normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, EurAsian J. Biosci, 14(2020),5865–5870.
[2]          S. NAGHMOUCHI and M. ALSUBEIE, Biochemical profile, antioxidant capacity and allelopathic effects from five Ziziphyus spina-christi (L.) provenances growing wild in Saudi Arabia, Not. Bot. Horti Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca, 48 (2020), 1600–1612.
[3]          E. M. Abdallah, Antibacterial Activity of Fruit Methanol Extract of Ziziphus spina-christi from Sudan, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci, 6 (2017), 38–44.
[4]          L. Baghazadeh-Daryaii, G. R. Sharifi-Sirchi, and D. Samsampoor, Morphological, phytochemical and genetic diversity of Ziziphus spina – Christi (L) Des. in South and Southeastern of Iran, J. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants, 7 (2016), 99–107.
[5]          M. Bahmani, A. Jalilian, I. Salimikia, S. Shahsavari, and N. Abbasi, Phytochemical screening of two Ilam native plants Ziziphus nummularia ( Burm . f .) Wight & Arn . and Ziziphus spina-christi ( Mill .) Georgi using HS-SPME and GC-MS spectroscopy, Plant Science Today, 7(2020), 275–280.
[6]          Fath El-Rahman A, Munged I, Tegani A, Ibrahim A, Mohamed A, Mohamed H, and Mubarak A. Abstract, Fatty Acid Composition and Biological activity of Zizyphus spina-christi L Seeds Oil from Sudan,International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(2019), 21–23.
 [7]         Y. S. Abubakar, Proximate and Selected Mineral Elements Analysis of Nigerian Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd Edible Fruit Pulp, Earthline J. Chem. Sci,5(2020), 231–240.
[8]          A. S. Saied, J. Gebauer, K. Hammer, and A. Buerkert, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.: A multipurpose fruit tree, Genet. Resour. Crop Evol, 55(2008), 929–937.
[9]          M. Visveshwari, B. Subbaiyan, and V. Thangapandian, Phytochemical Analysis , Antibacterial Activity , FTIR and GCMS Analysis of Ceropegia juncea Roxb, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 9(2017), 914–920.
[10]       R. Bashyam, M. Thekkumalai, and V. Sivanandham, Evaluation of Phytoconstituents of Bryonopsis laciniosa fruit by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and FTIR analysis, Pharmacognosy Journal, 7 (2015), 165–170.
[11]       T. Ananthi and M. Chitra, Analysis of Flower Extract of  Michelia champaca ( L .,) by FTIR Spectrum, International of Phytopharmacy Research, 4(2013), 68–70.
[12]       G. Belakhdar, A. Benjouad, and E. H. Abdennebi, Determination of some bioactive chemical constituents from Thesium humile Vahl, J. Mater. Environ. Sci, 6 (10) (2015) 2778-2783
[13]       J. U. N. Wang, W. Wu, X. Wang, M. I. N. Wang, and F. Wu, An effective GC method for the determination of the fatty acid composition in silkworm pupae oil using a two-step methylation process, Journal of Serbian Chemical Socity, 80(2015), 9–20.
[14]       T. E. Hagr and I. A. Adam, Phytochemical Analysis , Antibacterial and antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa ( L ) Seeds , ( Sudanese Karkadi ), Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res. 2020, 3(3), 194-201 10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2020.3.2
 [15]      D. K. G and R. Rajakumar, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrmetry Analysis of Bioactive Components from the Ethanol Extract of Avicennia marina Leaves, Innovare Journal of Science, 4 (2016), 1–4.
[16]       V. A. Gideon and V. A. Gideon, GC-MS analysis of phytochemical components of Pseudoglochidion anamalayanum Gamble : An endangered medicinal tree,Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 5(2015), 36–41.
[17]       A. Chi, Z. Shen, W. Zhu, Y. Sun, Y. Kang, and F. Guo, Characterization of a protein-bound polysaccharide from Herba Epimedii and its metabolic mechanism in chronic fatigue syndrome,J. Ethnopharmacol, 203 (2017), 241–251.
[18]       M. A. Abubaker, G. Huo, J. Shi, A. A. M. Farah, and J. Zhang, Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrum and Infra-Red spectral analysis of Fixed Oil from Sudanese Adansonia digitata Seeds, Chem. Methodol., 5(3) (2021), 240- 249 [19]  N. U. Chy, A. T. M. M. Kamal, J. W. Barlow, M. O. Faruque, C. H. Park, and D. H. Cho, molecules Investigation of the Biological Activities and Characterization of Bioactive Constituents ofOphiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata (D.Don) & Mondal Leaves through In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Approaches , molecules, 24(7) (2019), 1367.
[20]       A. Elaiyaraja and G. Chandramohan, Comparative phytochemical profile of Indoneesiella echioides ( L .) Nees leaves using GC-MS,Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5 (2016),158–171.
[21]       D. E. Okwu and B. U. Ighodaro, GC-MS Evaluation of the Bioactive Compounds and Antibacterial Activity of the Oil Fraction from the Stem Barks of Dacryodes acryodes edulis G. DON LAM DONATUS,International Journal of Drug Development & Research, 1(2009), 117–125.
[22]       M. Anagement, C. E. Capparaceae, C. M. Ojinnaka, and K. I. Nwachukwu, The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivity of the seed ( Fruit ) extracts of Buchholzia, Journal of Applied Science and Envirnmental, 19 (2015),795 - 801. 10.4314/jasem.v19i4.29
[23]       C. C. Carson, A. V. Moore, J. L. Weinerth, K. K. Ford, and N. Reed Dunnick, Percutaneous dissolution of renal calculi using ultrasonic litholapaxy, South. Med. J, 77 (1984), 196–199.
[24]       A. B. D. Nandiyanto, R. Oktiani, and R. Ragadhita, How to read and interpret ftir spectroscope of organic material,Indones. J. Sci. Technol, 4(2019), 97–118.
[25]       Duraisamy Kalpana, Jae Hong Shim, Byung-Taek Oh, Kalaiselvi Senthil,Yang Soo Lee,          Bioremediation of the heavy metal complex dye Isolan Dark Blue 2SGL-01 by white rot fungus Irpex lacteus,Journal of Hazardous Materials, 198(2011) 198-205.
[26]       M. A. Z. Dos Santos, T. V. R. Alicieo, C. M. P. Pereira, G. Ramis-Ramos, and C. R. B. Mendonça, Profile of bioactive compounds in avocado pulp oil: Influence of the drying processes and extraction methods, JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 91 (2014), 19–27.
[27]       J. Jiang, W. Yang, Y. Cheng, Z. Liu, Q. Zhang, and K. Zhao, Molecular structure characterization of middle-high rank coal via XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy: Implications for coalification, Fuel, 239 (2018), 559–572.
[28]       W. Dun, L. Guijian, S. Ruoyu, and F. Xiang, Investigation of structural characteristics of thermally metamorphosed coal by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, Energy and Fuels., 27(2013), 5823–5830.
[29]       P. C. Painter, R. W. Snyder, M. Starsinic, M. M. Coleman, D. W. Kuehn, and A. Davis, Concerning the Application of Ft-Ir To the Study of Coal: a Critical Assessment of Band Assignments and the Application of Spectral Analysis Programs, Appl. Spectros., 35 (1981), 475–485.
[30]       H. xia Liu, S. qin Sun, G. hua Lv, and K. K. C. Chan, Study on Angelica and its different extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy, Spectrochim. Acta - Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc, 64(2006), 321–326.
[31]       R. Vijayalakshmi and R. Ravindhran, Comparative fingerprint and extraction yield of Diospyrus ferrea (willd.) Bakh. root with phenol compounds (gallic acid), as determined by uv-vis and ft-ir spectroscopy, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed, 2(2012), 1367–1371.
[32]       M. D. Berechet, M. D. Stelescu, E. Manaila, and G. Craciun, Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia absinthium from Romania, Rev. Chim, 66(2015), 1814–1818.
[33]       M. Ahmad, B. Ashraf, A. Gani, and A. Gani, Microencapsulation of saffron anthocyanins using β glucan and β cyclodextrin: Microcapsule characterization, release behaviour & antioxidant potential during in-vitro digestion,”Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 109 (2018), 435–442.
[34]       C. Sudheesh, K. V. Sunooj, and J. George, Kithul palm (Caryota urens) as a new source of starch: Effect of single, dual chemical modifications and annealing on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility, Int. J. Biol. Macromol, 125 (2019), 1084–1092.
[35]       S. V. Kodate, A. K. Yadav, and G. N. Kumar, Combustion, performance and emission analysis of preheated KOME biodiesel as an alternate fuel for a diesel engine, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 141 (2020), 2335–2345.
[36]       S. I. Salih, J. K. Oleiwi, and A. S. Mohamed, Investigation of mechanical properties of PMMA composite reinforced with different types of natural powders, ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci, 13 (2018), 8889–8900.
[37]       Bushra Riaz, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Muhammad Asif Zahoor, Humara Naz Majeed, Irum Javed, Aftab Ahmad, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Zulhussnain, Kishwar Sultana, Toxicity, Phytochemical Composition, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Some Indigenous Weed Plant Extracts in Fruit Fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Evidence-based Complement. Altern. Med., 2018 (2018), 11.
[38]       Zhiguo Wanga, Lili Wua, Dong Zhoua, Ping Jia, Xinping Zhoua, Yuhong Zhanga, and Peixin Hea, Synthesis and Water Absorbing Properties of KGM-g-P(AA-AM-(DMAEA-EB)) via Grafting Polymerization Method, Polym. Sci. - Ser. B, 62 (2020), 238–244.
[39]       N. A. I. M. Ishak, S. K. Kamarudin, S. N. Timmiati, N. A. Karim, and S. Basri, Biogenic platinum from agricultural wastes extract for improved methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cell, J. Adv. Res., 28 (2021), 63–75.