Document Type: Original Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, College of Applied and Industrial Sciences, University of Bahri, P. O. Box 1660, Khartoum, Sudan

2 Department of Basic Science, University of Zalingei, Zalingei, Sudan.



In this study we investigated the chemical constituents, phytochemical screening of the essential oil from H. sabdariffa (L) Seeds, (Sudanese Karkadi) and evaluated its potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities, using Soxhlet method to extract the essential oil. The chemical constituents of H. Sabdariffa (L) Oil were identified and quantified by GC-MS, where DPPH and paper, disc diffusion assay were employed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities respectively. Phytochemical screening showed that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carbohydrates, Saponins, Triterpens, Streols, Tannins and phenolic compounds are present in seeds of the H. Sabdariffa. Thirty eight components have been identified which classified in to four categories; 31 fatty acid ester derivatives , the majority of them are; Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (16.94%), 9,12- Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z) -, methyl ester (21.93%), 9, -Octadecadienoic acid (Z), methyl ester (30.11%), methyl stearate(7.39%), Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid (3.17 %), Dotriacontane(2.17 %), two phenolic derivatives; 1,3-Benzodioxole,4methoxy-6-(2-propenyl)- (0.01 %) and Apiol (0.04 %), two steroidal derivatives; 17 -Androstannone, 3-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl) (1.81%) and Stigmasta-4,7,22-trien-3.beta.-ol (0.41%) and three Pentacyclic triterpenes derivatives; Beta.-Amyrin (3.82%) (3.17 %), Alpha.-Amyrin (1.65 %) Urs-12-en-3-ol, acetate,(3.beta.) (1.17%). The DPPH assay, showed moderate antioxidant potential (50 ± 0.01 compared with standard 89 ± 0.01; the antibacterial showed high inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis (13mm). In conclusion, the study showed that the Oil of H. sabdariffa seed is a good source of antioxidants due to the presence of phenolic compounds, also is a potential source of natural antibacterial, and justify its uses in folkloric medicines.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1] H.C. Voon, R. Bhat and G. Rusul, Flower extracts and their essential oils as potential antimicrobial agents for food uses and pharmaceutical applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety,  11 (2012)  34-55.

[2] I. Da-Costa-Rocha, B. Bonnlaender, H. Sievers, I. Pischel and M. Heinrich, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.–A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food chemistry,  165 (2014)  424-443.

[3] S. Patel, Hibiscus sabdariffa: An ideal yet under-exploited candidate for nutraceutical applications. Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition,  4 (2014)  23-27.

[4] H. Khalid, W.E. Abdalla, H. Abdelgadir, T. Opatz and T. Efferth, Gems from traditional north-African medicine: medicinal and aromatic plants from Sudan. Natural products and bioprospecting,  2 (2012)  92-103.

[5] E.M. Abdallah, Antibacterial efficiency of the Sudanese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), a famous beverage from Sudanese folk medicine. Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology,  5 (2016)  186.

[6] C. Kokate, Practical Pharmacognosy. Vallabh Prakashan Publication. New Delhi, India,  115 (1999) 

[7] O.M. Ozkendir, Boron Activity in Metal Containing Materials. Advanced Journal of Chemistry-Section B,  2 (2020)  48-54.

[8] H. Schaller, The role of sterols in plant growth and development. Progress in lipid research,  42 (2003)  163-175.

[9] M. Nurdin, F. Fatma, M. Natsir and D. Wibowo, Characterization of methyl ester compound of biodiesel from industrial liquid waste of crude palm oil processing. Analytical chemistry research,  12 (2017)  1-9.

[10] K. Kingsbury, S. Paul, A. Crossley and D. Morgan, The fatty acid composition of human depot fat. Biochemical Journal,  78 (1961)  541.

[11] J. Jiang and X. Jia, Profiling of Fatty Acids Composition in Suet Oil Based on GC–EI-qMS and Chemometrics Analysis. International journal of molecular sciences,  16 (2015)  2864-2878.

[12] J. Anderson. Cholesterol-lowering effects of canned beans for hypercholesterolemic men. in Clinical Research. 1985. SLACK INC 6900 GROVE RD, THOROFARE, NJ 08086.

[13] S. Terese, BarceloCoblin G., M. Benet, R. Alvarez, R. Bressani, J.E. Halver and P.V. Escriba, Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Science.  105 (2008)  13811.

[14] K. Yoshinori, I. Mariko, O. Norihisa and F. Seuchiro, International Journal of Experimental an Clinical Pathophysiology and Drug Design,,  25 (2011)  49.

[15] M. Takayama, A terminal product ion in the fragmentation of methyl stearate under electron ionization conditions. Journal of the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan,  46 (1998)  139-142.

[16] T. Sledzinski, A. Mika, P. Stepnowski, M. Proczko-Markuszewska, L. Kaska, T. Stefaniak and J. Swierczynski, Identification of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human adipose tissue and serum. Lipids,  48 (2013)  839-848.

[17] Abdel Karim M, S. A. and K. M., Sudanese Petroselinum crispum Fixed Oil: GC-MS Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity,. The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Journal,  4 (2017)  39-46.

[18] E.-H. Liu, L.-W. Qi, B. Li, Y.-B. Peng, P. Li, C.-Y. Li and J. Cao, High-speed separation and characterization of major constituents in Radix Paeoniae Rubra by fast high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry,  23 (2009)  119-130.

[19] I.A. Adam and T.E. Hagr, GC-MS Analysis of Chemical Constituents from Chloroform Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br (Asclepiadaceae) Roots Collected in Sudan. Open Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry,  4 (2019)  20.




Hagr, Tuhami Elzein, Adam, Ibrahim Abdurrahman, Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial and antioxidant Activities of Essential Oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa (L) Seeds, (Sudanese Karkadi), Prog. Chem. Biochem. Res.2020, 3(3), 194-201

DOI: 10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2020.3.2