Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

Chemistry Department, Benue State University, Makurdi-Nigeria

10.33945/SAMI/PCBR.2020.1.9

Abstract

The ability of bacteria to develop resistance to many antibiotics cannot be undermined given the multifaceted health challenges in the present times. For this reason a lot attention is on botanicals and their products in search of new antibacterial agents. On the other hand, mango kernel oils (MKO) can be heavily valorized by taking advantage of the myriads bioactive phytochemicals it contains. Herein, we buttressed the use of MKO as bioactive agent against bacteria. The MKOs for the study were extracted by soxhlet means with ethanol and hexane for 4 h from 3 different mango kernels, namely; “local” (sample A), “julie” (sample B) and “john” (sample C). Prior to the extraction, ground fine particles of the kernels were obtained from the seed kernels dried in oven at 100 OC for 8 h. Hexane gave higher yield of the oils than ethanol. It was also qualitatively confirmed that the mango kernel oils contain some phytochemicals such as phenol, quinone, saponin and terpernoid. The results of the antibacterial activities of the MKO against both gram positive (staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (pseudomonas aeruginosa) at different concentrations showed that the oils extracted with ethanol gave better antibacterial properties than those of the hexane. More so, the bioactivities were best with the local mango kernel oil. Indeed this work has completely validated the previous claim that MKOs are effective antibacterial agent. Thus, these oils (especially the ethanol-derived ones) can be used as bacteriostatic and antibacterial agent in say food, cosmetics and allied industries.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

References:    

[1] J. Kaur, X. Rathinam, M. Kasi, K.M. Leng, R. Ayyalu, S. Kathiresan and S. Subramaniam, Preliminary investigation on the antibacterial activity of mango (Mangifera indica L: Anacardiaceae) seed kernel. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine,  3 (2010)  707-710.

[2] A.-S.H. Abdullah, M.E.S. Mirghani and P. Jamal, Antibacterial activity of Malaysian mango kernel. African Journal of Biotechnology,  10 (2011)  18739-18748.

[3] V. Falusi, I. Adesina, A. Aladejimokun and T. Elehinafe, Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ripe and Unripe Peels of Mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Applied Life Sciences International, (2017)  1-7.

[4] A.M. Abdel-Aty, W.H. Salama, M.B. Hamed, A.S. Fahmy and S.A. Mohamed, Phenolic-antioxidant capacity of mango seed kernels: therapeutic effect against viper venoms. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia,  28 (2018)  594-601.

[5] S. Kittiphoom and S. Sutasinee, Mango seed kernel oil and its physicochemical properties. International Food Research Journal,  20 (2013)  1145.

[6] K. Rakholiya, M. Kaneria and S. Chanda, Physicochemical and phytochemical analysis of different parts of Indian Kesar mango–a unique variety from Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Pharmacognosy Journal,  8 (2016)  502–506.

[7] M. Pitchaon, Antioxidant capacity of extracts and fractions from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) seed kernels. International Food Research Journal,  18 (2011)  523–528.

[8] Y.-Y. Soong and P.J. Barlow, Quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid from longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed and mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel and their effects on antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry,  97 (2006)  524-530.

[9] D.E. Okwu and V. Ezenagu, Evaluation of the phytochemical composition of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) stem bark and leaves. Int. J. Chem. Sci,  6 (2008)  705-716.

[10] J. Nzikou, A. Kimbonguila, L. Matos, B. Loumouamou, N. Pambou-Tobi, C. Ndangui, A. Abena, T. Silou, J. Scher and S. Desobry, Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from mango (Mangifera indica). Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences,  2 (2010)  31-35.

[11] A. Sadiq, I. Elijah and U. Aroke, Extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of rosigold mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel oil for bioresin production. Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment,  13 (2017)  643-654.

[12] H. Jahangirian, M.J. Haron, M.H. Shah, Y. Abdollahi, M. Rezayi and N. Vafaei, Well diffusion method for evaluation of antibacterial activity of copper phenyl fatty hydroxamate synthesized from canola and palm kernel oils. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures,  8 (2013)  1263-1270.

[13] M.G. Ajuru, L.F. Williams and G. Ajuru, Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of some plants used in ethnomedicine in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences,  5 (2017)  198-205.

[14] P. Maisuthisakul and M.H. Gordon, Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of mango seed kernel by product. Food chemistry,  117 (2009)  332-341.

[15] L.L. Silver, Novel inhibitors of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Current opinion in microbiology,  6 (2003)  431-438.

[16] T. Kabuki, H. Nakajima, M. Arai, S. Ueda, Y. Kuwabara and S.i. Dosako, Characterization of novel antimicrobial compounds from mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel seeds. Food chemistry,  71 (2000)  61-66.

[17] A. Sen and A. Batra, Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of medicinal plant: Melia azedarach L. Int J Curr Pharm Res,  4 (2012)  67-73.

[18] J. Mushore and M. Matuvhunye, Antibacterial properties of Mangifera indica on Staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology,  14 (2013)  62-74.